*Courses 7A-7B-7C or H7A-H7B-H7C are fundamental and are designed to meet the needs of students majoring in any of the physical sciences or who are enrolled in the College of Chemistry or the College of Engineering. Students proceeding with a second-year mathematics sequence should take courses 53-54 concurrently with Physics 7B-7C, respectively. Physics 8A-8B is designed for premedical students, students in architecture, and students in the biological sciences. Physics 10 is recommended for the nonscience major who wishes to gain some understanding of basic physical concepts. These courses fulfill, in part, the natural science requirements of the College of Letters and Science.*

*Lower Division Courses*

**7A. Physics for Scientists and Engineers. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and four hours of laboratory/workshop per week.Six hours of lecture and eight hours of laboratory/workshop per week for eight weeks.
*Prerequisites: High school physics; Math 1A; Math 1B (which may be taken concurrently).*
Mechanics and wave motion.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**7B. Physics for Scientists and Engineers. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and four hours of laboratory/workshop per week.
*Prerequisites: 7A, Math 1A-1B, Math 53 (may be taken concurrently).*
Heat, electricity, and magnetism.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**7C. Physics for Scientists and Engineers. (4) **
Three hours of lecture, one hour of discussion, and three hours of laboratory per week.
*Prerequisites: 7A-7B, Math 1A-1B, Math 53, 54 (Math 54 may be taken concurrently).*
Electromagnetic waves, optics, relativity, and quantum physics.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**H7A. Physics for Scientists and Engineers. (4) **
Students will received no credit for H7A after taking 7A. Three hours of lecture, three hours of laboratory, and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: High school physics; Math 1A; Math 1B (may be taken concurrently).*
Honors sequence corresponding to 7A-7B-7C, but with a greater emphasis on theory as opposed to problem solving. Recommended for those students who have had advanced Physics on the high school level and who are intending to declare a major in physics. Entrance into H7A is decided on the basis of performance on an examination given during the first week of class or the consent of the instructor, and into H7B-H7C on performance in previous courses in a standard sequence.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**H7B. Physics for Scientists and Engineers. (4) **
Students will receive no credit H7B after taking 7B. Three hours of lecture, three hours of laboratory, and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 7A, Math 1A-1B, Math 53 (may be taken concurrently).*
Honors sequence corresponding to 7A-7B-7C, but with a greater emphasis on theory as opposed to problem solving. Recommended for those students who have had advanced Physics on the high school level and who are intending to declare a major in physics. Entrance into H7A is decided on the basis of performance on an examination given during the first week of class or the consent of the instructor, and into H7B-H7C on performance in previous courses in a standard sequence.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**H7C. Physics for Scientists and Engineers. (4) **
Three hours of lecture, one hour of discussion, and three hours of laboratory per week.
*Prerequisites: 7A-7B, Math 1A-1B, Math 53, 54 (Math 54 may be taken concurrently).*
Honors sequence corresponding to 7A-7B-7C, but with a greater emphasis on theory as opposed to problem solving. Recommended for those students who have had advanced Physics on the high school level and who are intending to declare a major in physics. Entrance into H7A is decided on the basis of performance on an examination given during the first week of class or the consent of the instructor, and into H7B-H7C on performance in previous courses in a standard sequence.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**8A. Introductory Physics. (4) **
Students with credit for 7A will not receive credit for 8A. Three hours of lecture and four hours of discussion/laboratory week.
*Prerequisites: Mathematics 1A, 10A, 16A, or equivalent, or consent of instructor.*
Introduction to forces, kinetics, equilibria, fluids, waves, and heat. This course presents concepts and methodologies for understanding physical phenomena, and is particularly useful preparation for upper division study in biology and architecture.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**8B. Introductory Physics. (4) **
Students with credit for 7B or 7C will not receive credit for Physics 8B. Three hours of lecture and four hours of discussion/laboratory section per week.
*Prerequisites: 8A or equivalent.*
Introduction to electricity, magnetism, electromagnetic waves, optics, and modern physics. The course presents concepts and methodologies for understanding physical phenomena, and is particularly useful preparation for upper division study in biology and architecture.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**C10. Descriptive Introduction to Physics. (3) **
Students will receive no credit for C10 after taking 10. Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: Open to students with or without high school physics.*
The most interesting and important topics in physics, stressing conceptual understanding rather than math, with applications to current events. Topics covered may vary and may include energy and conservation, radioactivity, nuclear physics, the Theory of Relativity, lasers, explosions, earthquakes, superconductors, and quantum physics. Also listed as Letters and Science C70V.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**21. Physics of Music. (3) **
Two hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: No previous courses in Physics are assumed, although Physics 10 is recommended.*
Physical principles encountered in the study of music. The applicable laws of mechanics, fundamentals of sound, harmonic content, principles of sound production in musical instruments, musical scales. Numerous illustrative lecture demonstrations will be given. Only the basics of high school algebra and geometry will be used.
(F,SP)

**C21. Physics and Music. (3) **
Students will receive no credit for Physics C21/Letters and Science C70W after completing Physics 21. A deficient grade in Physics 21 may be removed by taking Physics C21/Letters and Science C70W. Two hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: No previous courses in Physics are assumed, although Physics 10 is recommended.*
What can we learn about the nature of reality and the ways that we humans have invented to discover how the world works? An exploration of these questions through the physical principles encountered in the study of music. The applicable laws of mechanics, fundamentals of sound, harmonic content, principles of sound production in musical instruments, musical scales. Numerous illustrative lecture demonstrations will be given. Only the basics of high school algebra and geometry will be used. Also listed as Letters and Science C70W.
(F,SP)

**24. Freshman Seminars. (1) **
Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. One hour of seminar per week.
Sections 1-2 to be graded on a letter-grade basis. Sections 3-4 to be graded on a *passed/not passed* basis.
The Berkeley Seminar Program has been designed to provide new students with the opportunity to explore an intellectual topic with a faculty member in a small-seminar setting. Berkeley Seminars are offered in all campus departments, and topics vary from department to department and semester to semester.
(F,SP)

**39. Lower Division Physics Seminar. (1.5-4) **
Course may be repeated for credit. One and one-half to four hours of seminar per week.
Sections 1-2 to be graded on a letter-grade basis. Sections 3-4 to be graded on a *passed/not passed* basis.
*Prerequisites: Enrollment by consent of instructor during the week of pre-enrollment. Consult bulletin boards outside 366 Le Conte for more information.*
Enrollment limited to 20 students per section. Physics seminar course designed for both non major students and students considering a major in physics. Topics vary from semester to semester.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**49. Supplementary Work in Lower Division Physics. (1-3) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Meetings to be arranged.
Students with partial credit in lower division physics courses may, with consent of instructor, complete the credit under this heading.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**98. Directed Group Study. (1-4) **
Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. Enrollment is restricted; see the Introduction to Courses and Curricula section of this catalog. One to four hours of directed group study per week.
Must be taken on a *passed/not passed* basis.
*Prerequisites: Restricted to freshman and sophomores only; consent of instructor.*
(F,SP)

**99. Supervised Independent Study. (1-3) **
Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. Enrollment is restricted; see the Introduction to Courses and Curricula section of this catalog. One to four hours of independent study per week.
Must be taken on a *passed/not passed* basis.
*Prerequisites: Restricted to freshmen and sophomores only; consent of instructor.*
(F,SP)

*Courses 7A-7B-7C (regular or honors) and differential and integral calculus are prerequisite to all upper division courses except Physics 132.*

*Upper Division Courses*

**100. Communicating Physics and Physical Science. (2) **
Two hours of lecture/fieldwork per week.
For undergraduate and graduate students interested in improving their ability to communicate scientific knowledge by teaching science in K-12 schools. The course will combine instruction in inquiry-based science teaching methods and learning pedagogy with 10 weeks of supervised teaching experience in a local school. Students will practice, with support and mentoring, communicating scientific knowledge through presentations and hands-on activities. Approximately three hours per week including time spent in school classrooms.
(SP)
*Staff*

**105. Analytic Mechanics. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: Physics 7A, 7B, 7C.*
Newtonian mechanics, motion of a particle in one, two, and three dimensions, Larange's equations, Hamilton's equations, central force motion, moving coordinate systems, mechanics of continuous media, oscillations, normal modes, rigid body dynamics, tensor analysis techniques.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**110A. Electromagnetism and Optics. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: Physics 7A, 7B, 7C.*
Part I. A course emphasizing electromagnetic theory and applications; charges and currents; electric and magnetic fields; dielectric, conducting, and magnetic media; relativity, Maxwell equations. Wave propagation in media, radiation and scattering, Fourier optics, interference and diffraction, ray optics and applications.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**110B. Electromagnetism and Optics. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: Physics 7A, 7B, 7C and 110A.*
Part II. A course emphasizing electromagnetic theory and applications; charges and currents; electric and magnetic fields; dielectric, conducting, and magnetic media; relativity, Maxwell equations. Wave propagation in media, radiation and scattering, Fourier optics, interference and diffraction, ray optics and applications.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**111. Modern Physics and Advanced Electrical Laboratory. (1-3) **
Course may be repeated for a maximum of 9 units. Six units required for physics major; nine units may be taken for credit. No more than 3 units may be completed in one semester. Eight hours of laboratory per week.
*Prerequisites: 137A or consent of instructor.*
The first semester (3 units), on Basic Semiconductor Circuits (BSC), covers introductory analog and digital circuits. The class meets for two 4-hour afternoon lab sessions, and a 1-1/2 hour weekly lecture. In the second semester, Advanced Lab (3 units), students complete 4 of 20+ advanced experiments. These include many in atomic, nuclear, classical, and solid-state physics, among others. Students may, with approval, enroll in an optional third semester for variable units.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**112. Introduction to Statistical and Thermal Physics. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: Physics 7A, 7B, 7C.*
Basic concepts of statistical mechanics, microscopic basis of thermodynamics and applications to macroscopic systems, condensed states, phase transformations, quantum distributions, elementary kinetic theory of transport processes, fluctuation phenomena.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**129. Particle Physics. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 137A, 137B (may be taken concurrently), or consent of instructor.*
*Formerly 129A.*
Tools of particle and nuclear physics. Properties, classification, and interaction of particles including the quark-gluon constituents of hadrons. High energy phenomena analyzed by quantum mechanical methods. Course will survey the field including some related topics in nuclear physics.
(F)
*Staff*

**130. Quantum and Nonlinear Optics. (3) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 110A and 137A-137B, or consent of instructor.*
Detailed theory and experimental basis of quantum and nonlinear optics, exhibiting concepts of quantum measurement, noise, stochastic processes and dissipative quantum systems. Topics include second-quantization of electromagnetic fields, photodetection, coherence properties, light-atom interactions, cavity quantum electrodynamics, nonlinear optical systems, squeezed light, aspects of quantum information science, and contemporary research.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**137A. Quantum Mechanics. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: Physics 7A, 7B, 7C.*
Part I. Introduction to the methods of quantum mechanics with applications to atomic, molecular, solid state, nuclear and elementary particle physics.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**137B. Quantum Mechanics. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: Physics 7A, 7B, 7C and 137A.*
Part II. Introduction to the methods of quantum mechanics with applications to atomic, molecular, solid state, nuclear and elementary particle physics.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**138. Modern Atomic Physics. (3) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 137A-137B.*
This course covers atomic, molecular, and optical physics as a quantitative description of atoms and fields, a generalized toolbox for controlling quantum systems, and a vibrant research area. Topics covered include atomic structure and spectra, atom-field interactions, topics in quantum electrodynamics, methods of resonant manipulation of quantum systems, resonance optics, and experimental techniques.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**139. Special Relativity and General Relativity. (3) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 105, 110A or consent of instructor.*
Historical and experimental foundations of Einstein's special theory of relativity; spatial and temporal measurements, particle dynamics, electrodynamics, Lorentz invariants. Introduction to general relativity. Selected applications. Designed for advanced undergraduates in physics and astronomy.
(SP)
*Staff*

**141A. Solid State Physics. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 137A-137B; 137B may be taken concurrently.*
Part I. A thorough introductory course in modern solid state physics. Crystal symmetries; classification of solids and their bonding; electromagnetic, elastic, and particle waves in periodic lattices; thermal magnetic and dielectric properties of solids; energy bands of metals and semi-conductors; superconductivity; magnetism; ferroelectricity; magnetic resonances.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**141B. Solid State Physics. (3) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 137A-137B and 141A.*
Part II. A thorough introductory course in modern solid state physics. Crystal symmetries; classification of solids and their bonding; electromagnetic, elastic, and particle waves in periodic lattices; thermal magnetic and dielectric properties of solids; energy bands of metals and semi-conductors; superconductivity; magnetism; ferroelectricity; magnetic resonances.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**142. Introduction to Plasma Physics. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 105, 110A-110B (110B may be taken concurrently).*
Motion of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields, dynamics of fully ionized plasma from both microscopic and macroscopic point of view, magnetohydrodynamics, small amplitude waves; examples from astrophysics, space sciences and controlled-fusion research.
(SP)
*Staff*

**151. Elective Physics: Special Topics. (3) **
Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: Consent of instructor.*
Topics vary from semester to semester. The subject matter level and scope of the course are such that it is acceptable as the required elective course in the Physics major. See Department of Physics course announcements.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**C161. Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: Physics 110A-110B; Physics 112 (may be taken concurrently).*
*Formerly C160B and Astronomy C160B.*
Elements of general relativity. Physics of pulsars, cosmic rays, black holes. The cosmological distance scale, elementary cosmological models, properties of galaxies and quasars. The mass density and age of the universe. Evidence for dark matter and dark energy and concepts of the early universe and of galaxy formation. Reflections on astrophysics as a probe of the extrema of physics. Also listed as Astronomy C161.
(SP)
*Boggs, Davis, Holzapfel, A. Lee, Ma, Quataert*

**177. Principles of Molecular Biophysics. (3) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 112 or consent of instructor.*
We will review the structure of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and the forces and interactions maintaining their structure in solution. We will describe the thermodynamics and kinetics of protein folding. The principles of polymer chain statistics and of helix-coil transitions in biopolymers will be reviewed next, together with biopolymer dynamics. We will then cover the main structural methods in biology: X-ray crystallography, MNR and fluorescence spectroscopy, electron and probe microscopy, and single molecular methods.
(SP)
*Staff*

**H190. Physics Honors Course. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit.
Must be taken on a *passed/not passed* basis.
*Prerequisites: Consent of instructor.*
A seminar which includes study and reports on current theoretical and experimental problems. Open only to students officially in the physics honors program or with consent of instructor.
(SP)
*Staff*

**C191. Quantum Information Science and Technology. (3) **
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: Mathematics 54, Physics 7A-7B, and either Physics 7C, Mathematics 55, or Computer Science 170.*
This multidisciplinary course provides an introduction to fundamental conceptual aspects of quantum mechanics from a computational and informational theoretic perspective, as well as physical implementations and technological applications of quantum information science. Basic sections of quantum algorithms, complexity, and cryptography, will be touched upon, as well as pertinent physical realizations from nanoscale science and engineering. Also listed as Chemistry C191 and Computer Science C191.
(F,SP)
*Crommie, Vazirani, Whaley*

**H195A-H195B. Senior Honors Thesis Research. (2;2) **
Credit and grade to be awarded on completion of sequence.
*Prerequisites: Open only to students in the honors program.*
Thesis work under the supervision of a faculty member. To obtain credit the student must, at the end of two semesters, submit a satisfactory thesis. A total of four units must be taken. The units may be distributed between one or two semesters in any way.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**198. Directed Group Study. (1-4) **
Course may be repeated for credit.
Must be taken on a *passed/not passed* basis.
Enrollment restrictions apply; see the Introduction to Courses and Curricula section in this catalog.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**198BC. Berkeley Connect. (1) **
Course may be repeated for credit. One hour of directed group study per week.
Must be taken on a passed/not passed basis.
Berkeley Connect is a mentoring program, offered through various academic departments, that helps students build intellectual community. Over the course of a semester, enrolled students participate in regular small-group discussions facilitated by a graduate student mentor (following a faculty-directed curriculum), meet with their graduate student mentor for one-on-one academic advising, attend lectures and panel discussions featuring department faculty and alumni, and go on field trips to campus resources. Students are not required to be declared majors in order to participate.
(F,SP)

**199. Supervised Independent Study. (1-3) **
Must be taken on a *passed/not passed* basis.
Enrollment restrictions apply; see the Introduction to Courses and Curricula section in this catalog.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

*Graduate Courses*

**C201. Introduction to Nano-Science and Engineering. (3) **
Three hours of lecture per week.
*Prerequisites: Major in physical science such as chemistry, physics, etc., or engineering; consent of advisor or instructor.*
A three-module introduction to the fundamental topics of Nano-Science and Engineering (NSE) theory and research within chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering. This course includes quantum and solid-state physics; chemical synthesis, growth fabrication, and characterization techniques; structures and properties of semiconductors, polymer, and biomedical materials on nanoscales; and devices based on nanostructures. Students must take this course to satisfy the NSE Designated Emphasis core requirement. Also listed as Bioengineering C280, Materials Science and Engineering C261, and Nanoscale Science and Engineering C201.
(F,SP)
*Gronsky, S.W. Lee, Wu*

**C202. Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics. (4) **
Students will receive no credit for Physics C202 after taking Astronomy 202. Three hours of lecture per week.
Principles of gas dynamics, self-gravitating fluids, magnetohydrodynamics and elementary kinetic theory. Aspects of convection, fluid oscillations, linear instabilities, spiral density waves, shock waves, turbulence, accretion disks, stellar winds, and jets. Also listed as Astronomy C202.
(F,SP)
*Chiang, Kasen, Ma, Quataert, White*

**C203. Computational Nanoscience. (3) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: Graduate standing or consent of instructor.*
A multidisciplinary overview of computational nanoscience for both theorists and experimentalists. This course teaches the main ideas behind different simulation methods; how to decompose a problem into "simulatable" constituents; how to simulate the same thing two different ways; knowing what you are doing and why thinking is still important; the importance of talking to experimentalists; what to do with your data and how to judge its validity; why multiscale modeling is both important and nonsense. Also listed as Nanoscale Science and Engineering C242.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**205A. Advanced Dynamics. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 105 or equivalent.*
Lagrange and Hamiltonian dynamics, variational methods, symmetry, kinematics and dynamics of rotation, canonical variables and transformations, perturbation theory, nonlinear dynamics, KAM theory, solitons and integrable pdes.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**205B. Advanced Dynamics. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 205A.*
Nonlinear dynamics of dissipative systems, attractors, perturbation theory, bifurcation theory, pattern formation. Emphasis on recent developments, including turbulence.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**C207. Radiation Processes in Astronomy. (4) **
Students will receive no credit for C207 after taking Astronomy 201. Three hours of lecture per week.
*Prerequisites: Physics 105, 110A; 110B concurrently; open to advanced undergraduates with GPA of 3.70.*
An introduction to the basic physics of astronomy and astrophysics at the graduate level. Principles of energy transfer by radiation. Elements of classical and quantum theory of photon emission; bremsstrahlung, cyclotron and synchrotron radiation. Compton scattering, atomic, molecular and nuclear electromagnetic transitions. Collisional excitation of atoms, molecules and nuclei. Also listed as Astronomy C207.
(F,SP)
*Bower, Chiang, Kasen, Quataert*

**209. Classical Electromagnetism. (5) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 110A-110B or consent of instructor.*
Maxwell's equations, gauge transformations and tensors. Complete development of special relativity, with applications. Plane waves in material media, polarization, Fresnel equations, attenuation, and dispersion. Wave equation with sources, retarded solution for potentials, and fields. Cartesian and spherical multipole expansions, vector spherical harmonics, examples of radiating systems, diffraction, and optical theorem. Fields of charges in arbitrary motion, radiated power, relativistic (synchrotron) radiation, and radiation in collisions.
(F)

**211. Equilibrium Statistical Physics. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 112 or equivalent.*
Foundations of statistical physics. Ensemble theory. Degenerate systems. Systems of interacting particles.
(F)
*Staff*

**212. Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 112 and 221A-221B, or equivalents.*
Time dependent processes. Kinetic equations. Transport processes. Irreversibility. Theory of many-particle systems. Critical phenomena and renormalization group. Theory of phase transitions.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**216. Special Topics in Many-Body Physics. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 221A-221B or equivalent recommended.*
Quantum theory of many-particle systems. Applications of theory and technique to physical systems. Pairing phenomena, superfluidity, equation of state, critical phenomena, phase transitions, nuclear matter.
(SP)

**221A. Quantum Mechanics. (5) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 137A-137B or equivalent.*
Basic assumptions of quantum mechanics; quantum theory of measurement; matrix mechanics; Schroedinger theory; symmetry and invariance principles; theory of angular momentum; stationary state problems; variational principles; time independent perturbation theory; time dependent perturbation theory; theory of scattering.
(F)
*Staff*

**221B. Quantum Mechanics. (5) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 221A.*
Many-body methods, radiation field quantization, relativistic quantum mechanics, applications.
(SP)
*Staff*

**226. Particle Physics Phenomenology. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 221A-221B or equivalent or consent of instructor.*
Introduction to particle physics phenomena. Emphasis is placed on experimental tests of particle physics models. Topics include Quark model spectroscopy; weak decays; overview of detectors and accelerators; e+e- annihilation; parton model; electron-proton and neutrino-proton scattering; special topics of current interest.
(F)
*Staff*

**C228. Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology. (3) **
Three hours of lecture per week.
A survey of physical cosmology - the study of the origin, evolution, and fate of the universe. Topics include the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model, thermal history and big bang nucleosynthesis, evidence and nature of dark matter and dark energy, the formation and growth of galaxies and large scale structure, the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave radiation, inflation in the early universe, tests of cosmological models, and current research areas. The course complements the material of Astronomy 218. Also listed as Astronomy C228.
(F)
*Davis, Holzapfel, Lee, Ma, Seljak, White*

**229. Advanced Cosmology. (3) **
Three hours of lecture per week.
*Prerequisites: Physics/Astronomy C228 or equivalent or consent of instructor.*
Advanced topics in physical and early-universe cosmology. Topics include the expanding Universe, evidence and nature of dark matter and dark energy, relativistic perturbation theory, models of cosmological inflation, the formation and growth of large scale structure and the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background, and current research areas. The course extends the material of C228.
(F,SP)

**231. General Relativity. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 209 or equivalent, or consent of instructor.*
An introduction to Einstein's theory of gravitation. Tensor analysis, general relativistic models for matter and electromagnetism, Einstein's field equations. Applications, for example, to the solar system, dense stars, black holes, and cosmology.
(SP)
*Staff*

**232A. Quantum Field Theory I. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 221A-221B or equivalent or consent of instructor (concurrent enrollment in 226 is recommended).*
Introduction to quantum field theory: canonical quantization of scalar, electromagnetic, and Dirac fields; derivation of Feynman rules; regularization and renormalization; introduction to the renormalization group; elements of the path integral.
(F)

**232B. Quantum Field Theory II. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 232A or equivalent or consent of instructor.*
Renormalization of Yang-Mills gauge theories: BRST quantization of gauge theories; nonperturbative dynamics; renormalization group; basics of effective field theory; large N; solitons; instantons; dualities. Selected current topics.
(SP)

**233A. Standard Model and Beyond I. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 232A or equivalent or consent of instructor (concurrent enrollment in 232B is recommended).*
Introduction to the Standard Model of particle physics and its applications: construction of the Standard Model; Higgs mechanism; phenomenology of weak interactions; QCD and the chiral Lagrangian; quark mixing and flavor physics.
(F,SP)

**233B. Standard Model and Beyond II. (4) **
Course may be repeated with consent of instructor. Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 233A or equivalent or consent of instructor.*
Advanced topics in the Standard Model and beyond, selected from: open problems in the Standard Model; supersymmetric models; grand unification; neutrino physics; flat and warped extra dimensions; axions; inflation; baryogenesis; dark matter; the multiverse; other current topics.
(F,SP)

**234A. String Theory I. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 232A or equivalent or consent of instructor. 232B is recommended.*
Perturbative theory of the bosonic strings, superstrings, and heterotic strings: NSR and GS formulations; 2d CFT; strings in background fields; T-duality; effective spacetime supergravity; perturbative description of D-branes; elements of compactifications and string phenomemology; perturbative mirror symmetry.
(F)

**234B. String Theory II. (4) **
May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 234A or equivalent or consent of instructor.*
Nonperturbative apsects of string theory. Topics selected from black holes; black branes; Bekenstein-Hawking entropy; D-branes; string dualities; M-theory; holographic principle and its realizations; AdS/CFT correspondence; gauge theory/gravity dualities; flux compactifications; cosmology in string theory; topological string theories. Selected current topics.
(SP)

**238. Advanced Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 110A, 130, 137A-137B, and 138; or consent of instructor.*
Contemporary topics in atomic, molecular, and optical physics are presented at an advanced level. These topics may include one or several of the following, at the discretion of the instructor: mechanical effects of light-atom interactions, ultra-cold atomic physics, molecular physics, resonance optics of multi-level atoms, and probing particle physics with atoms and molecules.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**240A. Quantum Theory of Solids. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 141A-141B and 221A-221B or equivalents, or consent of instructor; 240A is prerequisite to 240B.*
Excitations and interactions in solids; crystal structures, symmetries, Bloch's theorem; energy bands; electron dynamics; impurity states; lattice dynamics, phonons; many-electron interactions; density functional theory; dielectric functions, conductivity and optical properties.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**240B. Quantum Theory of Solids. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: 141A-141B and 221A-221B or equivalents, or consent of instructor; 240A is prerequisite to 240B.*
Optical properties, excitons; electron-phonon interactions, polarons; quantum oscillations, Fermi surfaces; magnetoresistance; quantum Hall effect; transport processes, Boltzmann equation; superconductivity, BCS theory; many-body perturbation theory, Green's functions.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**242A. Theoretical Plasma Physics. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: Physics 142, or consent of instructor.*
Analysis of plasma behavior according to the Vlasov, Fokker-Planck equations, guiding center and hydromagnetic descriptions. Study of equilibria, stability, linear and nonlinear waves, transport, and laser-plasma interactions.
Offered alternate years. (F,SP)
*Staff*

**242B. Theoretical Plasma Physics. (4) **
Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.
*Prerequisites: Physics 142, or consent of instructor.*
Analysis of plasma behavior according to the Vlasov, Fokker-Planck equations, guiding center and hydromagnetic descriptions. Study of equilibria, stability, linear and nonlinear waves, transport, and laser-plasma interactions.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**250. Special Topics in Physics. (2-4) **
Course may be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.
*Prerequisites: Consent of instructor.*
Topics will vary from semester to semester. See Department of Physics announcements.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**251. Introduction to Graduate Research in Physics. (1) **
One hour of lecture per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.
*Prerequisites: Graduate standing in Department of Physics or consent of instructor.*
A survey of experimental and theoretical research in the Department of Physics, designed for first-year graduate students. One regular meeting each week with supplementary visits to experimental laboratories. Meetings include discussions with research staff.
(F)
*Staff*

**C254. High Energy Astrophysics. (3) **
Three hours of lecture per week.
*Prerequisites: Astronomy C207/Physics C207 or consent of instructor. Astronomy C202/Physics C202 recommended.*
Basic physics of high energy radiation processes in an astrophysics environment. Cosmic ray production and propagation. Applications selected from pulsars, x-ray sources, supernovae, interstellar medium, extragalactic radio sources, quasars, and big-bang cosmologies. Also listed as Astronomy C254.
(F)
*Boggs, Quataert*

**C285. Theoretical Astrophysics Seminar. (1) **
One hour of lecture per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.
The study of theoretical astrophysics. Also listed as Astronomy C285.
(F,SP)
*Quataert*

**290A. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.

**290B. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.

**C290C. Cosmology. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.
*Prerequisites: For undergraduate students, consent of instructor required. Previous background in cosmology recommended.*
Astronomy C290C.
(F,SP)
*White, Cohn*

**290D. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.

**290E. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.

**290F. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.

**290G. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.

**290H. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.

**290I. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.

**290J. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.
(F)

**290K. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.

**290L. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.
(F)

**290N. Seminar in Non-Neutral Plasmas. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.
(F)

**290P. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.

**290Q. Seminar in Quantum Optics. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.
(F)

**290R. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.

**290S. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.

**290T. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.

**290X. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.

**290Y. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.

**290Z. Seminar. (2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of seminar per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.

**295. Special Study for Graduate Students. (1-4) **
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.
*Prerequisites: Graduate standing.*
This course is arranged to allow qualified graduate students to investigate possible research fields or to pursue problems of interest through reading or non-laboratory study under the direction of faculty members who agree to give such supervision.
(F,SP)
*Staff*

**299. Research. (1-12) **
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.
*Prerequisites: Graduate standing.*
(F,SP)
*Staff*

*Professional Courses*

**301. Advanced Professional Preparation: Supervised Teaching of Physics. (1-2) **
Course may be repeated for credit. One hour of informal meeting and 10 to 20 hours of teaching per week.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.
*Prerequisites: 300.*
Discussion, problem review and development, guidance of physics laboratory experiments, course development.
(F,SP)

*Graduate Courses*

**602. Individual Study for Doctoral Students. (1-8) **
Course may be repeated for credit. Course does not satisfy unit or residence requirements for doctoral degree.
Must be taken on a *satisfactory/unsatisfactory* basis.
*Prerequisites: For qualified graduate students.*
Individual study in consultation with the major field adviser intended to provide an opportunity for qualified students to prepare themselves for the various examinations required of candidates for the Ph.D.
(F,SP)
*Staff*