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 History Courses



Lower Division Courses

R1.  The Practice of History. (4)   Three hours of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. Intended for non-majors as well as prospective majors, this course introduces students to the discipline of history as a humanistic inquiry into the experiences of people in time and space. How do historians interpret and debate the past? How do they gather and make use of their materials and sources? Readings include the works of classical historians from different cultural traditions, contemporary historical debates, and an exploration of historical sources available at Berkeley. Satisfies half of the Reading and Composition requirement. (F,SP)

R1B.  Reading and Composition in History. (4)   Three hours of seminar per week. Reading and composition courses based upon primary historical documents and secondary historical scholarship. These courses provide an introduction to core issues in the interpretation of historical texts and introduce students to the distinctive ways of reading primary and secondary sources. Courses focus on specific historical topics but address general issues of how historians read and write. Satisfies the second half of the Reading and Composition requirement. (F,SP)

2.  Comparative World History. (4)   Three hours of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. This lower-division lecture course introduces students to the study of history in multiple periods and regions. It will typically be co-taught by faculty members with different geographical and chronological expertise and will center around a particular theme, such as cities, food cultures, or war and society. No prior course-work in the history of any particular part of the world will be expected. (F,SP)

3.  After the Roman Empire: the East. (4)   Three hours of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. A general introduction to the study of history, this course focuses on Byzantium and the Islamic world, two medieval successors to the Roman empire in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Near East. This course has three aims: to provide an outline of events that transpired in this area from the 4th-15th centuries; to explain how a modern historian can approach medieval sources in order to reconstruct various aspects of the past; and to discuss the commonalities of pre-industrial societies, and how lessons learnt in this class can be applied to the study of other time periods and geographic locations. (F,SP) Staff

4.  Origins of Western Civilization.   Three hours of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. Introductory study of major historical events in the origins of western civilization. Emphasis on class discussions, readings in the sources, and writing of essays. (F,SP)

4A.  The Ancient Mediterranean World. (4)   This course offers an introductory survey of the history of the ancient Mediterranean world, from the rise of city states in Mesopotamia c.3000 BC to the transformation of the Roman Empire in the 5th and 6th centuries AD. The emphasis will be on the major developments in the political and social history of the ancient Near East, Egypt, Greece, and Rome, with special attention to those institutions, practices, ideas, and objects that have had an enduring influence on the development of western civilization. (F,SP)

4B.  Medieval Europe. (4)   (F,SP)

5.  European Civilization from the Renaissance to the Present. (4)   Three hours of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. This course is an introduction to European history from around 1500 to the present. The central questions that it addresses are how and why Europe--a small, relatively poor, and politically fragmented place-- became the motor of globalization and a world civilzation in its own right. Put differently how did "western" become an adjective that, for better and often for worse, stands in place of "modern". (F,SP)

6.  Chinese Civilization. (4)   Students will receive no credit for 6 after taking 6A and/or 6B. Three hours of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. Chinese history from ancient times to the present, with a strong emphasis on primary sources. This course presents the dominant narratives and interpretations of Chinese history, as well as providing a critical understanding of how these views became dominant.

6A.  History of China: Origins to the Mongol Conquest. (4)   Students will receive no credit for History 6A after taking History 6. Three hours of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. The history of China from its beginnings to the destruction of the Song Dynasty by the Mongols in the 13th century. Topics to be covered include the emergence of Chinese civilization, the Chinese language, early rhetoric and philosophy, the creation of the first empire, law, Buddhism and religious Taoism, the socioeconomic revolution of the 10th to 12th centuries, identities (male and female, Chinese and "barbarian"), lyric poetry, and painting and calligraphy. (F,SP)

6B.  Introduction to Chinese History from the Mongols to Mao. (4)   Students will receive no credit for History 6B after taking History 6. Three hours of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. This is an introduction to Chinese history from the 13th through the 20th centuries -- from the Mongols and Khubilai Khan's conquest of southern China to the amazing turnaround following the death of Mao Zedong in 1976 and the opening of the era of reform that has led to China's emergence as a major economic and strategic power today. The course assumes no prior knowledge of Chinese history. (F,SP)

7.  Introduction to the History of the United States.   Two to three hours of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. (F,SP)

7A.  The United States from Settlement to Civil War. (4)   This course is an introduction to the history of the United States from the beginning of the European colonization of North America to the end of the Civil War. It is also an introduction to the ways historians look at the past and think about evidence. There are two main themes: one is to understand the origin of the "groups" we call European-Americans, Native-Americans, and African-Americans; the second, is to understand how democratic political institutions emerged in the United States in this period in the context of an economy that depended on slave labor and violent land acquisition. This course satisfies the American cultures and history requirements.

7B.  The United States from Civil War to Present. (4)   What does it mean to be American? Whatever your answer is to this question, chances are it is deeply connected to the themes and events we will discuss in this class. Here we will track America's rise to global power, the fate of freedom in a post-Emancipation political setting, and the changing boundaries of nation, citizenship, and community. We will use landmark events to sharpen our themes, but we will also take care to analyze the equally important (and shifting) patterns of where and how Americans lived, worked, and played. This course satisfies the American cultures and history requirements. (F,SP)

8.  Latin American History.   Three hours of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. (F,SP)

8A.  Becoming Latin America, 1492 to 1824. (4)   This course covers the history of Latin America from the time of Columbus to around 1870. It thus reckons with almost four centuries of encounter, colonization, accommodation, and struggle that frame the ways that Latin America was becoming Latin American. Lectures and a mix of secondary and primary source readings and images produced during the colonial period serve as points of entry for discussion in section meetings.

8B.  Modern Latin America. (4)   This introductory course surveys the history of modern Latin America from independence to the present, with a strong emphasis on the twentieth century. Our focus will be on broad transfomations in politics, place, identity, and work. (F,SP)

10.  African History. (4)   Three hours of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. An introductory survey of the history of Africa. (F,SP)

11.  India. (4)   Three hours of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. (F,SP)

12.  The Middle East. (4)   Three hours of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. (F,SP)

14.  Introduction to the History of Japan. (4)   Three hours of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. Formerly 9B. A brisk introduction to the nearly two millennia of recorded Japanese history. As a survey, the course gives attention to broad themes and problems in Japan's political, social, and cultural/intellectual history. Topics include the dialectic of national and local identities in shaping Japanese politics, Japan's interaction with the Asian continent and the Western world, and the relation of past to present in modern times. (F,SP)

24.  Freshman Seminar. (1)   Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. One hour of seminar per week. Sections 1-3 to be graded on a passed/not passed basis. Sections 4-5 to be graded on a letter-grade basis. The Freshman Seminar Program has been designed to provide new students with the opportunity to explore an intellectual topic with a faculty member in a small seminar setting. Freshman seminars are offered in all campus departments and topics vary from department to department and semester to semester. Enrollment limited to fifteen freshmen.

30.  Science and Society. (4)   Three hours of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. Science as we know is the product of a historical process. In this course, we will explore the emergence of its concepts, practices, goals, and cognitive authority by surveying its roots in their social and cultural setting. We will trace the development of conceptions of the natural world from antiquity through the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment and up to the modern age. All the sciences fall within our purview, from their early forms up to today. (F,SP)

39.  Freshman Sophomore Seminar.   Course may be repeated for credit with different instructor. Seminar Format. Prerequisites: Priority given to freshmen and sophomores. Freshman and sophomore seminars offer lower division students the opportunity to explore an intellectual topic with a faculty member and a group of peers in a small-seminar setting. These seminars are offered in all campus departments; topics vary from department to department and from semester to semester.

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84.  Sophomore Seminar. (1,2)   Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. One hour of seminar per week per unit for fifteen weeks. One and one half hours of seminar per week per unit for 10 weeks. Two hours of seminar per week per unit for eight weeks. Three hours of seminar per week per unit for five weeks. Sections 1-2 to be graded on a passed/not passed basis. Sections 3-4 to be graded on a letter-grade basis. Prerequisites: At discretion of instructor. Sophomore seminars are small interactive courses offered by faculty members in departments all across the campus. Sophomore seminars offer opportunity for close, regular intellectual contact between faculty members and students in the crucial second year. The topics vary from department to department and semester to semester. Enrollment limited to 15 sophomores. (F,SP)

98.  Directed Group Study for Lower Division Students. (1-2)   Course may be repeated for credit. One to three hours of directed group study per week. Must be taken on a passed/not passed basis. Prerequisites: Lower division standing. Lectures and small group discussion focusing on topics of interest that vary from semester to semester. Grading based on discussion and written work. (F,SP)

98BC.  Berkeley Connect for Lower Division Students. (1)   Course may be repeated for credit. One hour of seminar per week. Must be taken on a passed/not passed basis. Berkeley Connect is a mentoring program, offered through various academic departments, that helps students build intellectual community. Over the course of a semester, enrolled students participate in regular small-group discussions facilitated by a graduate student mentor (following a faculty-directed curriculum), meet with their graduate student mentor for one-on-one academic advising, attend lectures and panel discussions featuring department faculty and alumni, and go on field trips to campus resources. Students are not required to be declared majors in order to participate. (F,SP)

Upper Division Courses

100.  Special Topics. (4)   Course may be repeated for credit. Three hours of lecture and zero to one hours of discussion per week. Designed primarily to permit the instructors to deal with a topic with which they are especially concerned, usually more restricted than the subject matter of a regular lecture course. A combination of informal lectures and discussions, term papers, and examinations. Instructors and subject to vary. Consult department website during pre-enrollment week each semester. (F,SP)

100AC.  Special Topics in the History of the United States. (4)   Designed primarily to permit the instructors to deal with topics with which they are especially concerned, usually more restricted than the subject matter of a regular lecture course. A combination of informal lectures and discussions, term papers, and examinations, with all grading by the instructor. Instructors and subjects to vary. This course satisfies the American cultures requirement. (F,SP)

100AP.  Special Topics in Ancient History. (4)   Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. Three hours of lecture and zero to one hours of discussion per week. Designed primarily to permit the instructors to deal with a topic with which they are especially concerned, usually more restricted than the subject matter of a regular lecture course. A combination of informal lectures and discussions, term papers, and examinations. Instructors and subject to vary. Consult department website during pre-enrollment week each semester. Satisfies the premodern requirement for the History major. (F,SP)

100B.  Special Topics in European History. (4)   Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. Three hours of lecture and zero to one hours of discussion per week. Designed primarily to permit the instructors to deal with a topic with which they are especially concerned, usually more restricted than the subject matter of a regular lecture course. A combination of informal lectures and discussions, term papers, and examinations. Instructors and subject to vary. Consult department website during pre-enrollment week each semester for specific topic. (F,SP)

100BP.  Special Topics in Medieval History. (4)   Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. Three hours of lecture and zero to one hours of discussion per week. Designed primarily to permit the instructors to deal with a topic with which they are especially concerned, usually more restricted than the subject matter of a regular lecture course. A combination of informal lectures and discussions, term papers, and examinations. Instructors and subject to vary. Consult department website during pre-enrollment week each semester for topic. Satisfies the premodern requirement for the History major. (F,SP)

100D.  Special Topics in the History of the United States. (4)   Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. Three hours of lecture and zero to one hours of discussion per week. Designed primarily to permit the instructors to deal with a topic with which they are especially concerned, usually more restricted than the subject matter of a regular lecture course. A combination of informal lectures and discussions, term papers, and examinations. Instructors and subject to vary. Consult department website during pre-enrollment week each semester for topics. (F,SP)

100E.  Special Topics in Latin American History. (4)   Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. Three hours of lecture and zero to one hours of discussion per week. Designed primarily to permit the instructors to deal with a topic with which they are especially concerned, usually more restricted than the subject matter of a regular lecture course. A combination of informal lectures and discussions, term papers, and examinations. Instructors and subject to vary. Consult department website during pre-enrollment week each semester for specific topic. (F,SP)

100F.  Special Topics in Asian History. (4)   Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. Three hours of lecture and zero to one hours of discussion per week. Designed primarily to permit the instructors to deal with a topic with which they are especially concerned, usually more restricted than the subject matter of a regular lecture course. A combination of informal lectures and discussions, term papers, and examinations. Instructors and subject to vary. Consult department website during pre-enrollment week each semester for topics. (F,SP)

100H.  Special Topics in African History. (4)   Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. Three hours of lecture and zero to one hours of discussion per week. Designed primarily to permit the instructors to deal with a topic with which they are especially concerned, usually more restricted than the subject matter of a regular lecture course. A combination of informal lectures and discussions, term papers, and examinations. Instructors and subject to vary. Consult department website during pre-enrollment week each semester for topic. (F,SP)

100L.  Special Topics in Legal History. (4)   Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. Three hours of lecture and zero to one hours of discussion per week. Designed primarily to permit the instructors to deal with a topic with which they are especially concerned, usually more restricted than the subject matter of a regular lecture course. A combination of informal lectures and discussions, term papers, and examinations. Instructors and subject to vary. Consult department website during pre-enrollment week each semester for topic. (F,SP)

100M.  Special Topics in the History of the Middle East. (4)   Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. Three hours of lecture and zero to one hours of discussion per week. Designed primarily to permit the instructors to deal with a topic with which they are especially concerned, usually more restricted than the subject matter of a regular lecture course. A combination of informal lectures and discussions, term papers, and examinations. Instructors and subject to vary. Consult department website during pre-enrollment week each semester for topics. (F,SP)

100S.  Special Topics in the History of Science. (4)   Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. Three hours of lecture and zero to one hours of discussion per week. Designed primarily to permit the instructors to deal with a topic with which they are especially concerned, usually more restricted than the subject matter of a regular lecture course. A combination of informal lectures and discussions, term papers, and examinations. Instructors and subject to vary. Consult department website during pre-enrollment week each semester for topics. (F,SP)

100U.  Special Topics in Comparative History. (4)   Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. Three hours of lecture and zero to one hours of discussion per week. Designed primarily to permit the instructors to deal with a topic with which they are especially concerned, usually more restricted than the subject matter of a regular lecture course. A combination of informal lectures and discussions, term papers, and examinations. Instructors and subject to vary. Consult department website during pre-enrollment week each semester for topic. (F,SP)

100UP.  Special Topics in Comparative History. (4)   Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. Three hours of lecture and zero to one hours of discussion per week. Designed primarily to permit the instructors to deal with a topic with which they are especially concerned, usually more restricted than the subject matter of a regular lecture course. A combination of informal lectures and discussions, term papers, and examinations. Instructors and subject to vary. Consult department website during pre-enrollment week each semester for topic. Satisfies the premodern requirement for the History major. (F,SP)

101.  Seminar in Historical Research and Writing for History Majors. (5)   Three to four hours of seminar per week. Individual research projects carried out in seminar sections in various historical fields resulting in a lengthy paper, with readings and discussions on general problems of historical inquiry. In addition to regular class meetings, individual consultations with the instructor, research, and preparation totaling ten to twelve hours per week are required. (F,SP)

103.  Proseminar: Problems in Interpretation in the Several Fields of History.   Course may be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. Three hours of seminar/discussion per week. Prerequisites: Consent of instructor. Designed primarily to give majors in history elementary training in historical criticism and research. Emphasis will be placed on writing and discussion. For precise schedule of offerings, see department catalog during pre-enrollment week each semester. (F,SP)

103A.  Ancient. (4)   (F,SP)

103B.  Europe. (4)   (F,SP)

103C.  England. (4)   (F,SP)

103D.  United States. (4)   (F,SP)

103E.  Latin America. (4)   (F,SP)

103F.  Asia. (4)   (F,SP)

103H.  Africa. (4)   (F,SP)

103S.  History of Science. (4)   (F,SP)

103U.  Studies in Comparative History. (4)   (F,SP)

104.  The Craft of History. (4)   One and one-half hours of lecture and three hours of discussion per week. The principal aim of this course it to prepare students to write a thesis in history (in the History 101 thesis seminar). To that end, its goals are (i) to introduce students to concrete elements of the craft of history; (ii) to provide ample opportunity in section to learn and practice these elements; and (iii) to introduce students in lecture to the enduring problems of the discipline. The course is offered in the spring semester, and is designed to precede the required 103 and 101 seminars. (F)

105.  Ancient Greece.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

105A.  Archaic and Classical Greek History. (4)   An overview of the history of the Greek world from the Bronze Age to 404 BC. Major themes will include: the ecology of the Mediterranean; development of the polis; colonization; tyranny and democracy; religion; warfare; agriculture and commerce; interstate relations; the Persian Wars; Sparta and the Peloponnesian League; Athens and the Athenian Empire. Most readings will be in (translated) primary sources, including Homer, Hesiod, Herodotus, Thucydides, Aeschylus, Aristophanes, and documentary evidence such as laws, treaties, and decrees. (F,SP)

105B.  The Greek World: 403-31 BCE. (4)   An overview of the history of the Greek World from the end of the Peloponnesian War to the Battle of Actium, the final stage in the Roman conquest of the Hellenistic World. Major topics will include: Greek-Persian relations in the fourth century; the rise of Macedon under Philip II; the conquests of Alexander the Great; the Hellenistic kingdoms; cultural interactions between Greeks and non-Greeks; Hellenistic economics; and the Roman conquest of the Greek world. Most readings will be in translated primary sources. (F,SP)

106.  Ancient Rome.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

106A.  The Roman Republic. (4)   A history of Rome from the foundation of the city to the dictatorship of Caesar. The course examines the evolution of Republican government, the growth of Roman imperialism, and the internal disruptions of the age of the Gracchi, Sulla, and Caesar. (F,SP)

106B.  The Roman Empire. (4)   A history of Rome from Augustus to Constantine. The course surveys the struggles between the Roman emperors and the senatorial class, the relationship between civil and military government, the emergence of Christianity, and Roman literature as a reflection of social and intellectual life. (F,SP)

107.  Topics in Ancient History.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

108.  Byzantium. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. The social, cultural, and religious history of the Near East and eastern Mediterranean from late antiquity through the early middle ages. The survival of the Roman Empire in Byzantium, the Sassanian Empire in Iran, and the rise of Islam are the topics covered.

109A.  The Rise of Islamic Civilization, 600-1200. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. A survey of Islamic civilization in the Middle East during the medieval period. Topics include the emergence of Islam in Arabia and the role of the prophet Muhammad; the rapid rise of an Islamic empire and its effects on the societies it governed; the creation of an Islamic civilization and the religious, political, and intellectual debates it engendered; contact with Europe and Asia through trade, the Crusades, and nomadic conquest; the contributions of non-Muslims, women, slaves. (F,SP)

109B.  The Middle East, 1000-1750. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. The establishment of Turkish power in the Middle East: Seljuks, Mongols, Ottomans, and Safavis.

109C.  The Middle East From the 18th Century to the Present. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. The breaking of pre-modern empires and the formation of national states in the Arab world, Turkey, and Iran; Islam and nationalism. (F,SP)

111.  Topics in the History of Southest Asia.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of voluntary discussion per week. (F,SP)

111A.  Southeast Asia to the 18th Century. (4)   The rise of the region's most important classical and early modern states; long-term economic, social, and religious trends. (F,SP)

111B.  Modern Southeast Asia. (4)   Major themes in modern Southeast Asian history with an emphasis on cross-country comparisons involving the region's largest and most populous countries: Thailand, Burma, Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines. (F,SP)

C111B.  Modern Southeast Asia. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Major themes in modern Southeast Asian history with an emphasis on cross-country comparisons involving the region's largest and most populous countries: Thailand, Burma, Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Also listed as Southeast Asian C141B. (F,SP) Staff

111C.  Political and Cultural History of Vietnam. (4)   This course provides an introduction to the main issues in Vietnamese history from the mythic and archaeological origins of the modern nation-state to the end of the Second Indochina War in 1975. Special emphasis will be placed on "modern" developments from the late 18th century. In addition to history texts, readings will be taken from novels, short stories, poetry, and memoirs. (F,SP)

111D.  Vietnam at War. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course explores the history of the wars that engulfed Vietnam during the post-WWII era. While focusing on the Second Indochina War (1954-1975), it also examines the history of the First Indochina War (1946-1954) and the Third Indochina War (1978-1980). It will address military, political, and social dynamics of the conflict as well as representatives of the war in film, fiction, and memoirs.

112.  Africa.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

112B.  Modern South Africa, 1652-Present. (4)   This course will examine three centuries of South African history that account for the origin and development of the recently dismantled apartheid regime. Our aim is to understand the major historical forces that progressively shaped what became a turbulent socio-cultural, economic, political, and racial frontier. (F,SP)

112C.  Colonialism and Nationalism in Africa. (4)   Students will receive no credit for 112C after taking 100 section 4 (Fall 2005) or 100 section 1 (Fall or Spring 2007). Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course examines the nature and effects of European colonization of Africa, and African responses to the colonial encounter. Broad themes include colonial conquest and practices of administration, African responses to the imposition of colonial rule, colonial economies, labor migration, introduction and impact of Christianity and Western education; women and the colonial state, urbanization, social change, the apartheid system, liberation struggles, decolonization, and the colonial legacy. (F,SP)

113A.  Traditional Korean History. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course surveys major issues in Korean history from the origins of the Korean people to the 19th century.

113B.  Modern Korean History. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course will survey major social, economic, and political developments on the Korean peninsula from the middle of the 19th century.

114.  India.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

114A.  Medieval and Early Modern India to the Coming of the British. (4)   We will have two projects in this course. The first of these is to understand, in so far as the sources permit, the nature of state structure in the Indian area between 1000 and 1800 CE. The second of these is to look at the way in which historians have described the history and the society of this period to understand the way in which the Indian state and its society has been constructed. This will involve reading in both substantive texts and theoretical works.

114B.  Modern South Asia. (4)   Here we will deal with the history of South Asia between the coming of the Europeans and the present. It will be organized around a series of contested formulations about the recent South Asian past. One of these problems is: how was India comprehended and manipulated by the Europeans? The second problem is: How was India conquered, by the sword or by the word? The third is: How did Indians resist the British? Finally, how was the voice of women, lower classes, and others expressed and heard? We will read books about language, gender, the "subaltern" classes, and women in an attempt to understand these questions.

116.  China.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

116A.  Early China. (4)  

116B.  Two Golden Ages: China During the Tang and Song Dynasties. (4)   This course explores Chinese history and culture in the period from the 7th to the 13th centuries, when China achieved unprecedented military, political, and cultural power in East Asia. It concentrates on the fundamental transformation of state and society that took place between the 8th and 12th centuries, and on the nature of the new "early modern" order that had come into existence by the end of the Southern Song. Topics of special concern are economic and political power, technology, religion and philosophy, and poetry and painting.

116C.  Modern China. (4)  

116D.  Twentieth-Century China. (4)   Chinese history from the decline of the Qing empire to the reforms under the Chinese Communist Party in the late 20th century. (F,SP)

116G.  Imperial China and the World. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. The history of China's relationship to the world from earliest times to the 20th c. Provides historical contextualization for China's recent resurgence on the world stage. Topics will include early territorial expansion, the Silk Road, the Great Wall, the Chinese diaspora, Mongol and Manchu empire building, the impact of Europeans in the 19th c, the emergence of Chinese nationalism, and China's evolving role in the global economy. (F,SP)

117.  Topics in Chinese History.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

117A.  Chinese Popular Culture. (4)   It is impossible to understand Chinese history and culture without knowing what ordinary people thought, felt, and believed. In this course, our primary concerns will be 1) the built environment -- village form, houses, temples; 2) village festivals and domestic rituals; 3) the rituals and scriptures of local cults; 4) operas, storytelling, and other forms of village entertainment; and 5) popular visual arts. These subjects will be studied through both written and visual documentation. (F,SP)

117D.  The Chinese Body: Gender and Sex, Health, and Medicine. (4)   This course brings a thematic approach to the critical analysis of the "Chinese body," as constructed before the 20th century, from four main perspectives, those of (1) gender, (2) sexual activity, (3) health, and (4) medicine. A variety of sources, material and literary, attest to changing perceptions over time, through the continuing use of standard vocabulary for Yin/Yang and the Five Phases frequently masked innovations. (F,SP)

118.  Japan.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

118A.  Japan, Archaeological Period to 1800. (4)   Emphasis on political, cultural, and intellectual history of the Early Imperial State, Japan's first military governments, early modern, and Meiji Japan.

118B.  Japan 1800-1900. (4)   Emphasis on the social and intellectual history of Japan's pre-war reconstruction.

118C.  Empire and Alienation: The 20th Century in Japan. (4)   Japan's experience of the 20th century, beginning with the development of capitalism and the acquisition of an empire, and tracing the achievements and tragedy that came with Japan's emergence as a world power. Emphasis on social and intellectual history and on how Japan has understood itself and the world in this century. (F,SP)

119A.  Postwar Japan. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course considers the history of Japan since the end of World War II, beginning with an exploration of the war itself and its complex legacy to the postwar era. Using the best recent scholarship and a selection of translated novels, essays, and poetry along with film and art, we look at the six postwar decades and the transformations of Japanese life that those years have brought. We try, finally, to answer the question: has "postwar" itself come to an end? (F,SP)

120AC.  American Environmental and Cultural History. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one and one-half hours of discussion per week. Formerly C120. History of the American environment and the ways in which different cultural groups have perceived, used, managed, and conserved it from colonial times to the present. Cultures include American Indians and European and African Americans. Natural resources development includes gathering-hunting-fishing; farming, mining, ranching, forestry, and urbanization. Changes in attitudes and behaviors toward nature and past and present conservation and environmental movements are also examined. Also listed as Environ Sci, Policy, and Management 160AC. This course satisfies the American cultures requirement. (F) Merchant

121.  The Colonial Period and American Revolution.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

121A.  American History, the Colonial Period: The Peoples and Cultures of Early America. (4)   America has always been a multicultural society and perhaps at no time was this more true than in the 17th and 18th centuries. In this course, we analyse the experiences of Native, African-, and European-Americans from about the 16th century through 1763 within the framework of early modern colonization, focusing upon their conflicting and changing gender, religious, social, cultural, economic, and political systems. This course satisfies the American cultures requirement. (F,SP)

121B.  The American Revolution. (4)  

122AC.  Antebellum America: The Advent of Mass Society. (4)   Three hours of lecture and zero to one hours of discussion per week. This course examines half a century of life in the United States (roughly from the War of 1812 until the secession of the Southern states), focusing on race relations, westward expansion, class formation, immigration, religion, sexuality, popular culture, and everyday life. Assigned readings will consist largely of first-person narratives in which women and men of a range of ethnic and cultural backgrounds construct distinctive visions of life in the new nation. This course satisfies the American cultures requirement. (F,SP)

123.  Civil War and Reconstruction. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This lecture course will take a broad view of the political, social, economic, and cultural history of the United States in the mid-19th century in order to explore both the causes of the Civil War and its effects on American development. Major topics will include slavery and race relations (north and south), class relations and industrialization, the organization of party politics, and changing ideas about and uses of government power. (F,SP)

124.  The Recent United States.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. (F)

124A.  The United States from the Late 19th Century to the Eve of World War II. (4)   During the first half-century before World War II, the United States became an industrialized, urban society with national markets and communication media. This class will explore in depth some of the most important changes and how they were connected. We will also examine what did not change, and how state and local priorities persisted in many arenas. Among the topics addressed: population movements and efforts to control immigration; the growth of corporations and trade unions; the campaign for women's suffrage; Prohibition; an end to child labor; the institution of the Jim Crow system; and the reshaping of higher education. This course satisfies the American cultures requirement. (F,SP)

124B.  The United States from World War II to the Vietnam Era. (4)   Immediately prior to World War II, the US military ranked 17th in the world, most African-Americans lived in the rural south and were barred from voting, culture and basic science in the United States enjoyed no world-wide recognition, most married women did not work for wages, and the census did not classify most Americans as middle-class or higher. By 1973, all this had changed. This course will explore these and other transformations, all part of the making of modern America. We will take care to analyze the events, significance and cost of US ascendancy to world power in an international and domestic context. This course satisfies the American cultures requirement. (F,SP)

125.  History of African-Americans and Race Relations in the United States.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. History of Afro-Americans: their African backgrounds, slave experience, social and cultural experience since emancipation. The course will consider race relations, particularly between blacks and whites in America.

125A.  The History of Black People and Race Relations, 1550-1861. (4)   The course will survey African American history from the African background to the outbreak of the Civil War. The origins and development of Afro-American society, culture and politics will be explored from the perspective of African-Americans themselves: slave and free, North and South. Throughout, the enduring dilemma of race relations functions as a central theme. (F,SP)

125B.  Soul Power: African American History 1861-1980. (4)   This course will examine the history of African Americans and ethno-racial relations from the Civil War and Emancipation (1861-1865) to the modern African American Freedom Struggle (1954-1972). Social, cultural, economic, and political developments will be emphasized. Topics to be covered include: Black Reconstruction; black life and labor in the New South; leadership; class; gender; Jim Crow; migration; urbanization; war and social change; the Harlem Renaissance; civil rights; and Black Power. (F,SP)

126A-126B.  The American West since 1850. (4;4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course surveys the history of the American West since 1845. We will pay particular heed to the history and historiography surrounding those aspects of the West that are typically associated with the region's distinctiveness as both a shifting region on the national map and a potent metaphor in the national imagination. This course satisfies the American cultures requirement.

127AC.  California. (4)   Three hours of lecture and zero to one hours of discussion per week. Formerly 127. The history of California from pre-European contact to the present, with emphasis on the diversity of cultures and the interplay of social, economic, and political developments. This course satisfies the American cultures requirement. (F,SP)

130.  American Foreign Policy. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course will explore the history of American foreign policy since 1776, focusing on diplomatic and military interactions and the evolution of American strategic thought. Students will also traverse the broader history of international relations and will engage some of the basic vocabulary of IR theory. Topics will range from the territorial expansion of the United States to the making of Cold War strategy and beyond. Students will be asked to consider how historical knowledge and reasoning might inform the making of foreign policy. (F,SP)

130B.  The United States and the World Since 1945. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course will explore U.S. relations with the external world since 1945. It will encompass the political and military interactions that constitute diplomatic history, but it will include other kinds of international and transnational encounters. The course will address themes including the struggle for a new world order after 1945; the Cold War's advent, intensification, and ending; the onrush of globalization since the 1970s; and the search for a coherent foreign policy after the Cold War. (F,SP)

131.  Social History of the United States.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. The nature and development of social and economic institutions, class, family and racial relationships, sex roles, and cultural norms in the United States.

131B.  Creating Modern American Society: From the End of the Civil War to the Global Age. (4)   This course examines the transformation of American society since the Civil War. The lectures and readings give special attention to the emergence of city culture and its possibilities for a pluralistic society; the experience and effect of immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries; the revolution in communications and industry; changes in family dynamics, the emergence of modern childhood, schooling, and youth culture; changes in gender relations and sexuality; the problematics of race and the changing nature of class relationships in a consumer society; the triumph of psychological and therapeutic concepts of the self. This course satisfies the American cultures and history requirements.

C132B.  Intellectual History of the United States since 1865. (4)   Students will receive no credit for C132B after taking 132B. Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. In this course we will be discussing key developments in U.S. thought since the middle of the nineteenth century, roughly beginning with the reception of Darwin. The broader story told in the class weaves together in the history of science and engineering, the arts and popular culture, philosophy, and education. Our goal is to trace how ideas, whether they are dominant, challenging, or look back, have affected the ways in which Americans live together. We will look at how intellectual life has empowered and expanded the capacity of Americans to understand their world and achieve goals more effectively. We will also consider how intellectual theories have contributed to inequality and injustice. Also listed as American Studies C132B.

134.  The Age of the City.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. (F,SP) Staff

134A.  The Age of the City, 1825-1933. (4)   For most of human history, urban living has been the experience of a distinct minority. Only in the past two hundred years have the physicial spaces, social relations, and lifestyles associated with large cities entered the mainstream. This course examines the long century of urban growth between 1825 and 1933, when big cities came into being in the United States. Focusing on large metropolitian centers (especially on New York, Chicago, and San Francisco), we will study the way urban spaces provided sites and sources of new modes of personal interaction, popular entertainment, social conflict, and political expression. This course satisfies the American cultures requirement. (F,SP)

135.  American Indian History: Precontact to the Present. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course will provide an introductory interpretation of the varied historical experiences of diverse nations native to North America from their origins through the present. We will assess both the impact of colonialism and its consequences upon Indian peoples as well as their responses, treating Native Americans as historical, political, economic, and cultural actors who resourcefully adjusted, resisted, and accommodated to the changing realities of life in native North America. (F,SP)

136.  Gender Matters in 20th Century America. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course explores the social, political, cultural, and economic history of women and men's lives, as well as changing sexual attitudes toward gender, the family and sexuality. Against the tapestry of twentieth American history, we will analyze how two dramatic changes--women's entry into the paid labor force and their control over their repoductive lives--gave rise to our contemporary cultural wars over the family, sexuality and reproduction. (F,SP)

136AC.  Gender Matters in 20th Century America. (4)   Three hours of lecture and zero to one hours of discussion per week. This course explores the social, political, cultural, and economic history of women and men's lives, as well as changing sexual attitudes toward gender, the family and sexuality. Against the tapestry of twentieth century American history, we will analyze how two dramatic changes -- women's entry into the paid labor force and their control over their reproductive lives -- gave rise to our contemporary cultural wars over the family, sexuality, and reproduction. This course satisfies the American cultures requirement. (F,SP)

137AC.  The Repeopling of America. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course examines the coming together of people from five continents to the United States and provides an historical overview of the shifting patterns of immigration. The course begins in the colonial era when servants and slaves typified the migrant to America. It then follows the migration of the pre-industrial immigrants, through migration streams during the industrial and "post-industrial" eras of the nation. This course satisfies the American cultures requirement. (F,SP)

138.  History of Science in the U.S. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. History of science in the U.S. from the colonial period to the present, with a focus on the contentious debates over the place of science within cultural, religious, and social-intellectual life. Development of institutions for the pursuit of scientific knowledge, with special attention to the relationships between science and technology and between science and the state. (F) Carson

138T.  History of Science in the US CalTeach. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course is a parallel course to 138, intended for students interested in teaching elementary or secondary school science and math. Students in the "T" course will attend the regular 138 lectures and a special section; this section will focus on techniques, skills, and perspectives necessary to apply the history of science in the juvenile and adolescent science classroom, including pedagogy, devising lesson plans for their classrooms, finding reliable historical information, and writing. (F,SP)

139.  Topics in United States History.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

C139B.  The American Immigrant Experience. (4)   Three hours of lecture, one hour of self-paced laboratory and one hour of optional discussion section per week. The history of the United States is the history of migration. The course covers the evolution of the American population from about 20,000 BC with the goal of understanding the interdependent roles of history and demography. As an American cultures class, special attention is given to the experiences of 18th- and 19th-century African and European immigrants and 20th- and 21st-century Asian and Latin American immigrants. Two substantial laboratory assignments; facility with a spreadsheet program is assumed. Also listed as Demography 145AC. This course satisfies the American cultures requirement. (SP) Mason

C139C.  Civil Rights and Social Movements in U.S. History. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Beginning with the onset of World War II, America experienced not a sigular,unitary Civil Rights Movement -- as is typically portrayed in standard textbood accounts and the collective memory -- but rather a variety of contemporaneous civil rights and their related social movements. This course explores the history, presenting a top-down (political and legal history), bottom-up (social and cultural history), and comparative (by race and ethnicity as well as region) view of America's struggles for racial equality from roughly World War II until the present. Also listed as American Studies 139AC. This course satisfies the American cultures requirement. (F,SP)

140.  Mexico.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. (F,SP)

140B.  Modern Mexico. (4)   This course surveys Mexican history from the end of the colonial period to the present, with an eye to how the study of Mexican history can help us understand the Mexico of today. Topics include the historical origins of peasant rebellions and their influence on national politics; the tension between democratic pressures and elitist and exclusionary pressures on the political system; neo-liberal economic policies; the powerful influence of the Catholic church; immigration to the U.S.; and the explosive 20th-century growth of Mexico City. (F,SP)

141.  Social History of Latin America.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

141B.  Social History of Latin America: Social History of Modern Latin America. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Affirmation of the central state. Social conflicts in the 20th century: industrialization and agrarian conflict. (F,SP)

143.  Brazil. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. From 16th Century conquest and settlement to the emergence of an industrial economy during the post-1964 period of military rule. Emphasis on dependence of colony on empire, on plantation agriculture, slavery, export economy, and the transition from agrarian to industrial society. (F,SP)

146.  Latin American Women. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This class surveys the experiences and impact of women in Latin America from the pre-conquest period to the present, as well as the ways that gender ideologies (like patriarchy, honor-shame, machismo) have influenced Latin American history. (F,SP)

149.  Medieval Italy.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. (F,SP)

149B.  Italy in the Age of Dante (1000-1350). (4)   This course is a survey of the history of northern Italy during the central Middle Ages (ca. 1000-1350). It traces the emergence, flowering, and decline of the "communes," the independent city republics that made Italian political life distinctive during the Middle Ages. The course explores the culture of these dynamic urban communities, especially emphasizing the rich visual and material culture, as well as the particular relationship between religion and society in Italy before the Renaissance. (F,SP)

150.  Medieval England.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Emphasis on interpretation of primary sources.

150B.  From the Conquest to 1290. (4)   Government, observation of government, community, religion, and social change.

151.  Britain 1485-Present.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. (F,SP)

151A.  Tudor Stuart Britain, 1485-1660. (4)   The history of Britain, albeit with primary emphasis on England, from the advent of the Tudors through the revolutions of the mid-17th century. Principal concentration on political, religious, and social developments. No prerequisites other than some sense of general European history in the age of the Reformation. (F,SP)

151B.  Britain, 1660-1851. (4)   This is a course about the history of Britain that asks why this small island nation was so central to how Europeans and others understood world history more generally. It looks at Britain as the paradigmatic venue of industrialization, class conflict or its absence, consumer culture, parliamentary democracy, religious tolerance, imperial expansion, and modernity generally. It begins with the aftermath of Europe's first revolution and ends with the first world's fair, 1851's Great Exhibition. (F,SP)

151C.  The Peculiar Modernity of Britain, 1848-2000. (4)   For many years, Britain was seen as the crucible of the modern world. This small, cold, and wet island was thought to have been the first to develop representative democracy, an industrial economy, rapid transport, mass cities, mass communication and mass culture, and, of course, an empire upon which the sun famously never set. And yet, despite this precocious modernity, imperial Britain remained a deeply traditional society unable to rid itself of ancient institutions like the monarchy, the aristocracy, and the established church. The focus of the course is on how this combination of the old and the new produced a broadly 'liberal' set of mentalities through which Britons came to understand and manage the great transformations of modern life, both at home and across the empire. (F,SP)

152.  Topics in the History of the British Isles.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

152A.  Ireland Since the Union. (4)   Irish history from the completion of the English conquest (1691) to the present. Topics: the formation of the British colony; the French Revolution and the beginnings of the nationalist tradition; Catholic emancipation and the origins of Home Rule; the Great Famine and the struggle of rural Ireland to the Land League; the transformation of the Catholic unionism, and the Great War; the Irish Revolution; the two Irelands, 1921-1967; Northern Ireland, troubles and terror; Ireland and Europe.

154.  Canada. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. A survey of Canadian history from exploration and first settlement through colonial times to confederation and nationhood to the present.

155.  Medieval Europe.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

155A.  From the Late Empire to the Investiture Conflict. (4)   Formulation of a West European civilization; stress on tribal settlements, the Carolingian Empire, and Christian foundations.

155B.  From the Investiture Conflict to the Fifteenth Century. (4)   Crusades; empire, papacy and the Western monarchies; social change, the rise of towns and heresy; culture and learning. Medieval civilization at its height. (F,SP)

156.  Topics in Medieval History.   Course may be repeated once for credit with consent of instructor.

C157.  The Renaissance and the Reformation. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Formerly 157. European history from the fourteenth to the middle of the seventeenth century. Political, social, and economic developments during this transitional period will be examined, together with the rise of Renaissance culture, and the religious upheavals of the sixteenth century. Also listed as Religious Studies C124. (F,SP)

158.  Modern Europe.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. (F,SP)

158A.  Old Regime and Revolutionary Europe, 1715-1815. (4)   The eighteenth century in Europe witnessed a series of "revolutions"--intellectual, political, and to a lesser extent, social and economic--that together constitute the birth rites of modern European society and culture. Historians collectively agree that the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, and the European expansion of Napoleonic France were events of world-historical significance, yet the causes and precise meaning of these events are the subjects of substantial disagreement. We will study the transformations of the eighteenth century that announced our modern world, and we will also try to make sense of the different ways that historians disagree about the meaning of what happened.

158B.  Europe in the 19th Century. (4)  

158C.  Old and New Europe, 1914-Present. (4)   A survey of the main trends and forces in the history of Europe from 1914 to the present. The course stresses the interaction of political, economic, and socio-cultural changes and explores the relationship between domestic and international politics. Topics discussed include the two world wars, the rise and fall of fascism and communism, imperialism, European integration, the cultural revolution of the 1960s. (F,SP)

159.  European Economic History.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

159A.  European Economic History. (4)   Survey of the economic and social developments of Europe up to the eve of industrialization. Including the transformation of peasant-based, agrarian economies, capitalist organization, colonial expansion, and international trade. This course is equivalent to Economics 111A; students will not receive credit for both courses.

159B.  European Economic History. (4)   Students will receive no credit for 159B after taking Economics 111B. The Industrial Revolution and the rise of the European economy to world dominance in the 19th century, emphasizing the diffusion of the industrial system and its consequences, the world trading system, and the rise of modern imperialism.

160.  The International Economy of the 20th Century. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Development and crises of the advanced economies, with particular emphasis on trade relations with third world countries. Economic impact of war, business cycles, and social movements. This course is equivalent to Economics 115; students will not receive credit for both courses. (F,SP)

162A.  Europe and the World: Wars, Empires, Nations 1648-1914. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This upper division course looks at the rise and fall of the European great powers from the Peace of Westphalia, traditionally perceived as the beginning of the modern states system, to the coming of the First World War, an era of state and empire building. Economic and technological trends are naturally part of the story as well as cultural, social, and political forces. At the same time, the course highlights the decisive influence of the shakers and movers--kings, emperors, and generals. (F,SP)

162B.  War and Peace: International Relations since 1914. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course analyzes the turbulent transitions from the classical European balance of power system to the global multipolar system of today. The course explores the political, economic, ideological, and technological roots of international affairs. Among topics discussed are the two world wars, inter-war collective security,the Cold War, European integration, imperialism and de-colonization, the collapse of Communism, the Middle East conflict, the rise of China and Japan, and the post-1990 international order.

163A.  European Intellectual History from the Enlightenment to 1870. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Reading primary texts, we will examine the major figures and themes in the intellectual development of Europe from Rousseau to Wagner. Included in the topics of the course will be German Idealism, Romanticism, Utopian Socialism, Marxism, Realism, Feminism and Nationalism. We will read works by Kant, Hegel, Goethe, Marx, Flaubert, Wollstonecraft, Kierkegard, and others. We will also listen to Wagner's Tristan und Isolde. The intellectual and artistic currents of the period will be set against the background of European history as a whole. (F,SP)

163B.  European Intellectual History, 1870 to the Present. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. The focus of the course will be on the social and political thought, primarily in Germany and France, with peripheral attention paid to England and Italy. Related philosophical and cultural trends will also be discussed. The readings will consist largely of selected texts which are representative of the major currents of the period.

164.  Modern European Intellectual History.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Formerly 163. Thought and art considered in their social and political contexts. (F,SP)

164A.  European Intellectual History from Renaissance to Enlightenment. (4)   Between 1500 and 1800, European thought built the foundations of modern culture, politics, economy, government, law, and religion. This course will introduce students to the period, from the Renaissance rediscovery of antiquity to the Scientific Revolution, from the theological innovation of the Reformation to the new forms of political theory that accompanied both French and American Revolutions. (F,SP)

164B.  European Intellectual History from Enlightenment to 1870. (4)   Formerly 163A. Reading primary texts, we will examine the major figures and themes in the intellectual development of Europe from Rousseau to Wagner. Included in the topics of the course will be German Idealism, Romanticism, Utopian Socialism, Marxism, Realism, Feminism and Nationalism. We will read works by Kant, Hegel, Goethe, Marx, Flaubert, Wollstonecraft, Kierkegard, and others. We will also listen to Wagner's Tristan und Isolde. The intellectual and artistic currents of the period will be set against the background of European history as a whole. (F,SP)

164C.  European Intellectual History 1870 to the Present. (4)   Formerly 163B. The focus of the coruse will be on the social and political thought, primarily in Germany and France, with the peripheral attention paid to England and Italy. Related philosophical and cultural trends will also be discussed. The readings will consist largely of selected texts which are representative of the major currents of the period. (F,SP)

165.  Topics in Modern European History.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

165A.  The Reformations of Christendom. (4)   This course examines not a period but a process: the reform and disruption of the civilization called "Christendom" during the 16th and 17th centuries and its transformation into the familiar Europe of the nation states. (F,SP)

165B.  The World, the Picture, and the Page: The Revolution in European Culture since the late 18th Century. (4)   Europe has experienced three revolutions in the past two centuries. The first was political, the second was economic, and the third was what Raymond Williams called the "cultural revolution" - the dramatic shift from a largely oral and iconographic world to one of universal literacy and the technology of modern communications. By means of readings, lectures, discussions, films and slides, the class will examine the meaning of the revolutionary change for the lives of ordinary men and women, as well as the responses of selected writers, artists, and social theorists to the culture of democratization.

165D.  The Social and Cultural History of Early Modern Europe. (4)   Three hours of lecture per week. This course examines the lives of ordinary people in Europe from roughly 1300-1800. Its goal, in the words of the great social historian E.P. Thompson, is to rescue them from "the enormous condescension of posterity," exploring how the common people made their own history and used their ingenuity to shape not only their own lives but also, at key moments, the development of European modernity. (F,SP)

166.  Modern France.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

166A.  Early Modern France to 1715. (4)  

166B.  Old Regime and Revolutionary France. (4)   France from the rise of Louis XIV to the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte. The course will explore the socio-economic and political factors that allowed France to emerge as the most powerful nation in Europe under Louis XIV. We will assess the extent of the kingdom's cultural influence and the realities of everyday life under the "old regime." We will then examine the intellectual, social, political, and religious developments of the eighteenth century--such as the Enlightenment, Jansenism, and colonialism--that ultimately led to a total assault against the monarchy in 1789, and finally, the outbreak, course, and consequences of the first great democratic revolution in modern Europe.

166C.  Modern France. (4)  

167.  Modern Germany.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

167A.  Early Modern Germany. (4)   From the period of the Protestant Reformation to the era of enlightened despotism and the French Revolution, German history was characterized by severe conflicts and problems unresolved. Early Modern German history contains many lessons concerning the relationship of war and peace, of violence and toleration, of reform and renewal and the rejection of any change, of Baroque splendor and widespread misery, of some progress and much disappointment, in short: of a most complicated legacy for future generations.

167B.  The Rise and Fall of the Second Reich: Germany 1770-1918. (4)   This course provides the essential foundation for understanding the catastrophic history of Germany in the 20th Century, as well as some of its successes. A central theme is the struggle to define and impose a single national identity on socially, culturally, and religiously diverse peoples in an age of Great Power conflict. Although the region now known as Germany will be the focus of our investigation, considerable attention will also be paid to the Hapsburg Empire, for until 1866 Austria was officially a part of "Germany" and remained, for nearly a century thereafter, culturally and in popular consciousness a part of a "Greater Germany."

167C.  Germany 1914 to the Present. (4)   This course will survey the political, economic, social, and cultural development of Germany since 1914. Special attention will be paid to the impact of World War I; problems of democratization under the impact of defeat, inflation, and depression; National Socialist racism and imperialism; the evolution of the German Federal Republic and the German Democratic Republic; unification and its problems; and modern Germany's role in Europe.

168.  Spain and Portugal.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

168A.  The Spanish and Portuguese Empires in the Golden Age: 1450-1700. (4)   This course will focus on the rise and development of early modern Europe's most powerful empires. Rising from the unlikely setting of a weak and fragmented Iberian peninsula in the 15th century, the Spanish and Portuguese Empires went on to become the world's first truly global powers. As such, they had a tremendous impact on the political, economic, cultural, and religious life of not only Iberia, but on significant parts of Europe and the New World. (F,SP)

169.  Modern Italy.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. (F,SP)

169A.  Renaissance and Baroque Italy 1350-1800. (4)   Formerly 169. This course will focus on the history of Italy during a period when it was the leading center of European artistic and cultural production and the driving force in the revival of classical learning and literary ideals. This was the Italy of Raphael and Michelangelo, Ariosto and Alberti, Brunelleschi and Botticelli. At the same time, Italy was also a political battleground through most of this period, both in the realm of ideas and theory but also in a literal sense. It was in Italy that "the art of war," as Machiavelli called it, took center stage as the peninsula became one of the major theaters of war between the great powers of the age, France and Spain. The course will combine a study of the artistic, intellectual, religious, and political history of Italy in this period both as it developed internally and as it was related to the rest of Europe and the Mediterranean world. Requirements will include a midterm, a final, and an optional final paper. (F,SP)

170.  The Netherlands. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. The Lowlands from the earliest times to the present monarchy; emphasis on the Golden Age of the 17th and 18th Centuries.

171.  Russia.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

171A.  Russia to 1700. (4)   This course examines the forces that molded Russian culture, society, and politics from earliest times to the 18th century. Lectures and readings touch upon multiple disciplines, including politics, society, economics, art, architecture, religion, and literature.

171B.  Imperial Russia: From Peter the Great to the Russian Revolution. (4)   In 1721, Peter the Great chose the title of Emperor for himself, and declared that Russia would be an Empire. The empire lasted until the revolutions of 1917, but was never entirely stable. The Romanovs believed that autocracy was the key to good governance. Yet, the reigns of almost all the Romanov Emperors were marked by coups d'etat, peasant rebellions, and, later, assassination attempts. Russia's expanding boundaries and growing population made it even more difficult to rule. This course will focus heavily on political history and political thought. Given the many factors that were tearing Peter's Empire apart, it will ask, what held it together for so many years?

171C.  The Soviet Union, 1917 to the Present. (4)   An introductory survey of Soviet history from the revolutions of 1917 to the present. Marxism-Leninism, War Communism, and Real Socialism; the Great Transformation and the Great Terror; family and nationality; state and society; Russia versus Soviet; Gorbachev versus the past.

172.  Russian Intellectual History. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course introduces students to Russian intellectual history from the end of the eighteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth century, covering aspects of political, social, and religious thought. We will observe Russian thinkers elaborate conceptions of nationalism in a multi-ethnic empire, trying to resolve the eternal question of Russia's national identity: whether it belongs to the East or West? Next, we will move on to social thought, including debates on serfdom, populism, the "women question," the nature of progress, and the rise of Marxism. Finally, we will study debates on religion: the pertinence of Orthodox Christian faith in social and philosophical thought, including early twentieth century religious rebuttals to Marxism.

173.  History of Eastern Europe.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

173B.  The Habsburg Empire, 1740-1918. (4)  

173C.  History of Eastern Europe: From 1900 to the Present. (4)   This course will examine the history of 20th-century Eastern Europe, understood as the band of countries and peoples stretching from the Baltics to the Balkans. Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary, however, will receive special attention. Topics of study will include foundation of the national states, Eastern European fascism, Nazi occupation, contructing Stalinist socialism, the fate of reform communism, reconstitution of "civil society," and the emergence of a new Eastern Europe. Given the paucity of historical writings on the region, the course will make extensive use of cinematic and literary portrayals of Eastern Europe. (F,SP)

174.  Topics in the History of Eastern Europe.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. (F,SP)

174A.  A History of Poland-Lithuania. (4)   The course will focus on the development of identities within the constantly shifting borders of Polish-Lithuanian and Polish states. Among the topics: competing definitions--ethnic, confessional, linguistic, political--of Polishness; continuities and discontinuities in Polish history and historiography; Poland beween East and West; the development of Polish self-perceptions; Jewish, Lithuanian, and Ukrainian identities in the Polish context; the Polish chapter in the events leading to the end of Communist hegemony in Eastern Europe. (F,SP)

174B.  Poles and Others: the Making of Modern Poland. (4)   This course uses the devices of historical and literary interpretation to expose and analyze some of the lines of political and cultural development that have led to the Poland we now know. Beginning with the awakening of modern Polish nationalism, it traces the emergence of this Poland through the rise of mass society; the horrifying and exhilarating spectacles of World War I and national and social revolutions; first experiments with modern Polish statehood (especially policies toward ethnic minorities and socially marginalized groups); then the transformations wrought by a half century of totalitarian rule; ethnic cleansing, elite transfer, forces social stratification, and despite all of this, the defiant return of civil society. Students must attend lectures, complete required readings, take two examinations and write a semester paper. (F,SP)

C175A.  Jewish Civilization: Middle Ages. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This is the third course in a four-course sequence in the history of Jewish culture and civilization. It covers the middle ages and the early modern period, including kabbalah, medieval poetry, halakhic, ethical literature, Jewish philosophy, and the Italian Jewish renaissance. Also listed as Undergrad Interdisciplinary Studies C154 and Religious Studies C134. Staff

C175B.  Jewish Civilization: Modern Period. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This is the fourth course in a four-course sequence in the history of Jewish culture and civilization. It explores the major themes in Jewish history from 1750 to the present, with special attention paid to the transformation of Jewish communal and individual identity in the modern world. Topics to be treated include the breakdown of traditional society, enlightenment and emancipation, assimilation, Hasidism, racial anti-Semitism, colonialism, Zionism, and contemporary Jewish life in Europe, North America, and Israel. The multicultural nature of Jewish history will be highlighted throughout the course through the treatment of non-European Jewish narratives alongside the more familiar Ashkenazi perspective. Also listed as Undergrad Interdisciplinary Studies C155 and Religious Studies C135. Staff

177.  Armenia.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. (F,SP)

177A.  Armenia from Ethnogenesis to the Dark Ages. (4)   This course will cover close to three millenia of Armenian history, from the process of ethnogenesis to the almost complete destruction of the Armenian "feudal" system by the end of the 15th century. This course is based on the broad framework of Armenian political history and institutions, but also emphasizes economic development, social change, and cultural transformations. (F,SP)

177B.  From Pre-modern Empires to the Present. (4)   This survey course will cover the period from the incorporation of most of the Armenian plateau into the Ottoman Empire to the present day. (F,SP)

178.  History of the Holocaust. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course will survey the historical events and intellectual developments leading up to and surrounding the destruction of European Jewry during World War II. We will examine the Shoah (the Hebrew word for the Holocaust) against the backdrop of modern Jewish and modern German history. The course is divided into two main parts: (1) the historical background up to 1939; and (2) the destruction of European Jewry, 1939-1945. (F,SP)

180.  The Life Sciences since 1750. (4)   Students will receive no credit for 180 after taking 180T. Three hours of lecture and one to two hours of discussion per week. This course will survey the development of the sciences of living nature from the mid-18th to the late-20th century. Topics include scientific and popular natural history, exploration and discovery, Darwin and evolution, cell theory, the organizational transformation of science, physiology and experimentalism, classical and molecular genetics, and the biomedical-industrial complex. Emphasis is on the formation of fundamental concepts and methods, long-term trends toward specialization, institutionalization, professionalization, and industrialization, and the place of the life sciences in modern societies. Many lectures are illustrated by slides.

180T.  History of the Life Sciences Since 1750 (Cal Teach). (4)   Three hours of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. This course is a parallel course to 180, intended for students interested in teaching elementary or secondary school science and math. Students in the "T" course will attend the regular 180 lectures and a special section; this section will focus on techniques, skills, and perspectives necessary to apply the history of science in the juvenile and adolescent science classroom, including pedagogy, devising lesson plans for their classrooms, finding reliable historical information, and writing.

181.  Topics in the History of the Physical Sciences.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

181B.  Modern Physics: From the Atom to Big Science. (4)   This course examines the establishment of the ideas and institutions of modern physics over the last century and a half. We begin with the nineteenth-century organization of the discipline and the debates over the classical world picture (mechanics, electromagnetism and optics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics). We then follow the dramatic changes that undid the classical picture, from the discovery of radioactivity through Einstein's theories of relativity on to the creation of quantum mechanics and the accompanying philosophical disputes. Alongside these conceptual upheavals we will look at the evolving structure of the discipline, its links with industry and government, and the massive transformations of the Second World War, culminating in the atomic bomb. In the postwar period we will deal with the conceptual consolidation of the modern physical worldview and the emergence of "big science" in alliance with the state. (F,SP)

182.  Topics in the History of Technology.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. (F,SP)

182A.  Technology and Society. (4)   What drives technological change? How does technology transfer across different cultures? These and other related questions are examined using historical case studies of productive, military, domestic, information, and biomedical technologies from 1700 to the present. The aim of the course is for students to learn about how technology affects social change and, especially, how technological change is invariably shaped by historical and social circumstances. (F,SP)

182AT.  Technology and Society (Cal Teach). (4)   This course is a parallel course to 182A, intended for students interested in teaching elementary or secondary school science and math. Students in the "T" course will attend the regular 182A lectures and a special section; this section will focus on techniques, skills, and perspectives necessary to apply the history of science in the jevenile and adolescent science classroom, including pedagogy, devising lesson plans for their classrooms, finding reliable historical information, and writing. (F,SP)

183.  Topics in the History of Medicine. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

183A.  Health and Disease. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course introduces major themes in the history of medicine through the lens of disease. It focuses on two questions: How have people defined well-being? How have they responded to illness? Themes considered include changing theories of disease causality, the development of international public health policy, social understandings of the body, and the growth of the pharmaceutical industry. Disease case studies will be analyzed through readings and films. (F,SP)

185.  History of Christianity.   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Christianity as a cultural, social, and political force in world history and as it has responded to cultural, social, and political change. (F,SP)

185A.  History of Christianity to 1250. (4)   The course deals with the origins of Christianity and the first eleven centuries of its expansion into a major institutional, social, and intellectual force shaping Western Europe. The central themes are the mechanisms and conditions shaping this expansion, rather than a chronological account in order to present this process as a model of institutionalization of religious movements. The emphasis will be on patterns of crisis and reform; i.e., on conflicts arising within the church itself and as a result of its dealings with the "outside" world, and how these crises were resolved. The course is based on the study of primary sources and will include problems of historical method. (F,SP)

185B.  History of Christianity from 1250. (4)   This course follows 185A as the second of two semesters on the History of Christianity. It treats the history of (principally Western) Christianity between the High Middle Ages and the present in Europe and in the rest of the world. The course's main theme is Christianity and the encounter of cultures. Its core readings range from Thomas a Kempis, Martin Luther, and St. Teresa of Avila to Simone Weil and Dietrich Bonhoeffer. The lectures will treat social, cultural, and intellectual topics, such as ecclesiastical authority institutions, forms of piety, revivalism, evangelization, theological speculation, Biblical scholarship, and philosophical arguments for and against religion. This introductory course presupposes no previous study of the subject, though almost any previous study of history or religion should be helpful.

186.  International and Global History since 1945. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course explores great and complex global historical changes that have taken place since the end of the second World War. By situating the major postwar upheavals - from decolonization to the Cold War; from population growth to environmental degradation; from globalization to the endurance of economic inequalities - in comparative and international contexts, this course encourages students to see the origins of our own times and dilemmas in their proper historical context and provides an introduction to recent international and gloal history. (F,SP)

C187.  The History and Practice of Human Rights. (4)   Students will receive no credit for C187 after taking Letters and Science 140D. Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. A required class for students in the human rights minor (but open to others), this course examines the development of human rights. More than a history of origins, it explores the relationships between human rights and other crucial themes in the history of the modern era. As a history of international trends and an examination of specific practices, it will ask students to make comparisons across space and time and to reflect upon the evolution of human rights in both thought and action. Also listed as Letters and Science C140V. (F,SP) Sargent

C188A.  Art and Science. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course explores the intersections of art and science in medieval, modern, and contemporary history. It focuses on the ways in which artistic and scientific practices have shaped and legitimated each other through the ages. The course takes the form of an overview that spans from the awakening of European culture through the reception of new knowledge from the Near East to the most recent encounters between art and technoscience in the 21st century. Also listed as History of Art C156B. (F,SP)

C188B.  Art and Science. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. In this course we explore the intersections of art and science in medieval, modern, and contemporary history. Our aim is twofold. First, to explore the close interaction between these two fields, and the way in which they have shaped each other through the ages. Second, to focus our attention on specific instances of art/science interaction, using them as prisms through which one can reach a fuller understanding of major historical transformations. Also listed as History of Art C158. (F) Fricke, Mazzotti

C191.  Death, Dying, and Modern Medicine: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. (4)   Three hours of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. This course will study the end of life--dying and death--from the perspective of medicine and history. It seeks to confront the humanist with the quotidian dilemmas of modern clinical practice and medicine's deep engagement with death more generally. It invites pre-med, pre-law, and public policy students to understand these matters in light of the historical and, more broadly, literary and artistic perspectives of the humanities. Also listed as Undergrad Interdisciplinary Studies C133 and Health and Medical Sciences C133. (SP) Laqueur, Micco

C192.  History of Information. (3)   Upper level undergraduates. Three hours of lecture per week. This course explores the history of information and associated technologies, uncovering why we think of ours as "the information age." We will select moments in the evolution of production, recording, and storage from the earliest writing systems to the world of Short Message Service (SMS) and blogs. In every instance, we'll be concerned with both what and when and how and why, and we will keep returning to the question of technological determinism: how do technological developments affect society and vice versa? Also listed as Media Studies C104C, Information C103, and Cognitive Science C103. (F,SP) Duguid, Nunberg

C194.  Dutch Culture and Society: Amsterdam and Berkeley in the Sixties. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. This course will focus on the cultural aspects of protest- and youth cultures in two cities that were influential in the sixties: Amsterdam and Berkeley. Particular attention will be paid to how American popular culture was perceived in a European context. All readings and discussions in English. Also listed as Sociology C189 and Dutch C170. (F,SP)

H195.  Senior Honors. (4)   Independent. Prerequisites: Senior honors standing. Limited to senior honors candidates. Directed study centering upon the preparation of an honors thesis. Supervisors will be assigned to each student after consultation with the honors committee.

C196A.  UCDC Core Seminar. (4)   Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Prerequisites: C196B (must be taken concurrently). This course is the UCDC letter-graded core seminar for 4 units that complements the P/NP credited internship course UGIS C196B. Core seminars are designed to enhance the experience of and provide an intellectual framework for the student's internship. UCDC core seminars are taught in sections that cover various tracks such as the Congress, media, bureaucratic organizations and the Executive Branch, international relations, public policy and general un-themed original research. Also listed as Undergrad Interdisciplinary Studies C196A, Sociology C196A, Political Economy C196A, Political Science C196A, Media Studies C196A, History of Art C196A, and Gender and Women's Studies C196A. (F,SP)

C196B.  UCDC Internship. (6.5)   Twenty-four to thirty hours of internship per week. Must be taken on a passed/not passed basis. Prerequisites: C196A (must be taken concurrently). This course provides a credited internship for all students enrolled in the UCDC and Cal in the Capital Programs. It must be taken in conjunction with the required academic core course C196A. C196B requires that students work 3-4 days per week as interns in settings selected to provide them with exposure to and experienc in government, public policy, international affairs, media, the arts or other areas or relevance to their major fields of study. Also listed as Undergrad Interdisciplinary Studies C196B, Sociology C196B, Political Economy C196B, Political Science C196B, Media Studies C196B, History of Art C196B, and Gender and Women's Studies C196B. (F,SP) Staff

C196W.  Special Field Research. (10.5)   Course may be repeated for a maximum of 12 units. 240-300 hours of work per semester plus regular meetings with the faculty supervisor. Prerequisites: Consent of instructor. Students work in selected internship programs approved in advance by the faculty coordinator and for which written contracts have been established between the sponsoring organization and the student. Students will be expected to produce two progress reports for their faculty coordinator during the course of the internship, as well as a final paper for the course consisting of at least 35 pages. Other restrictions apply; see faculty adviser. Also listed as Gender and Women's Studies C196W, History of Art C196W, Undergrad Interdisciplinary Studies C196W, Sociology C196W, Media Studies C196W, Political Science C196W, and Political Economy C196W. (F,SP)

198.  Directed Group Study for Upper Division Students. (1)   Course may be repeated for credit. Three hours of directed group study per week. Must be taken on a passed/not passed basis. Prerequisites: Lower division standing. Lectures and small group discussion focusing on topics of interest that vary from semester to semester. Grading based on discussion and written work. (F,SP)

198BC.  Berkeley Connect for Upper Division Students. (1)   Course may be repeated for credit. One hour of seminar per week. Must be taken on a passed/not passed basis. Berkeley Connect is a mentoring program, offered through various academic departments, that helps students build intellectual community. Over the course of a semester, enrolled students participate in regular small-group discussions facilitated by a graduate student mentor (following a faculty-directed curriculum), meet with their graduate student mentor for one-on-one academic advising, attend lectures and panel discussions featuring department faculty and alumni, and go on field trips to campus resources. Students are not required to be declared majors in order to participate. (F,SP)

199.  Supervised Independent Study and Research. (1-4)   Course may be repeated for credit. Independent. Must be taken on a passed/not passed basis. Prerequisites: Enrollment is restricted by regulations. (F,SP)

Graduate Courses

200X.  Special Topics: Short Course. (1-2)   Course may be repeated for credit. One and one-half to three hours of seminar per week. A four-week long course permitting the instructor to cover in-depth a topic of particular interest. Topics and instructors vary; consult department catalog for details. (F,SP)

200Y.  The Book as Object: the Art and Material History of the Book. (2)   Course may be repeated for credit as topic varies. Two hours of lecture per week. Must be taken on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis. Prerequisites: Consent of instructor. For 2,500 years, the book has dominated world culture as the primary material linguistic object. Lectures and demonstrations devoted to various aspects of the production of manuscript and printed books focusing on examining books in the collection of the Bancroft Library that exemplify, encapsulate, or represent an archetype or excellent model of the type and period(s) in which the book was published. Particular attention will be paid to the art of the book in relation to its content. (F,SP)

C231.  Japanese Studies: Past, Present... and Future?. (2)   One hour of seminar per week. Offers an overview of the history and current state of the field in Japanese studies, with faculty presentations, selected readings, and orientation sessions with East Asian Library staff to acquaint participants with relevant resources for research. Requirements will include completion of course readings and preparation of a research prospectus. Also listed as Japanese C231. (F)

C250.  Topics in Science and Technology Studies. (3)   Course may be repeated for credit. Three hours of seminar per week. This course provides a strong foundation for graduate work in STS, a multidisciplinary field with a signature capacity to rethink the relationship among science, technology, and political and social life. From climate change to population genomics, access to medicines and the impact of new media, the problems of our time are simultaneously scientific and social, technological and political, ethical and economic. Also listed as Environ Sci, Policy, and Management C252, Anthropology C254, and Science and Technology Studies C200. (F) Staff

C251.  Science and Technology Studies Research Seminar. (3)   Course may be repeated for credit. Three hours of seminar per week. Must be taken on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis. This course will cover methods and approaches for students considering professionalizing in the field of STS, including a chance for students to workshop written work. Also listed as Environ Sci, Policy, and Management C273, Anthropology C273, and Science and Technology Studies C250. (SP) Staff

275.  Core Courses in the Literature of the Several Fields of History.   Course may be repeated for credit. Three hours of seminar per week. To provide a broad survey of the literature and historiographical problems of the different fields in history.

275A.  Ancient. (4)  

275B.  Europe. (4)  

275C.  England. (4)  

275D.  United States. (4)  

275E.  Latin America. (4)  

275F.  Asia. (4)  

275S.  History of Science. (4)  

280.  Advanced Studies: Sources/General Literature of the Several Fields.   Course may be repeated for credit. Three hours of seminar per week. For precise schedule of offerings see department catalog during pre-enrollment week each semester.

280A.  Ancient. (4)  

280B.  Europe. (4)  

280C.  England. (4)  

280D.  United States. (4)  

280E.  Latin America. (4)  

280F.  Asia (For M.A. Candidates). (4)  

280G.  Asia (For Ph.D. Candidates). (4)  

280H.  Africa. (4)  

280N.  Canada. (4)  

280S.  History of Science. (4)  

280U.  Studies in Comparative History. (4)  

281.  Paleography and Other Auxiliary Sciences. (4)   Course may be repeated for credit with different instructor. Three hours of seminar per week. Introduction to the scholarly handling of texts, whether ancient or modern, inscriptions or manuscripts, and instruction in the methodologies, tools, sources, and the editing and use of texts relevant to a particular field of history; instruction in any auxiliary science requisite for historical research.

283.  Historical Method and Theory. (4)   Three hours of seminar per week. Designed especially for candidates for higher degrees in History. Stress is laid on practical exercises. For precise schedule of offerings see department catalog during pre-enrollment week each semester.

285.  Research Seminars.   Three hours of seminar per week. For precise schedule of offerings see department catalog during pre-enrollment week each semester.

285A.  Ancient. (4)  

285B.  Europe. (4)  

285C.  England. (4)  

285D.  United States. (4)  

285E.  Latin America. (4)  

285F.  Asia. (4)  

285H.  Africa. (4)  

285L.  Legal History. (4)  

285S.  History of Science. (4)  

285U.  Studies in Comparative History. (4)  

290.  Historical Colloquium. (1)   Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of lecture per week. Must be taken on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis. Colloquium on topics of current research. For precise schedule of offerings, see department catalog during pre-enrollment week each semester. (F,SP)

295.  Supervised Research Colloquium. (2-5)   Course may be repeated for credit. Two hours of lecture per week. Prerequisites: Consent of instructor. Preparation, presentation and criticism of research papers.

296.  Directed Dissertation Research. (3-12)   Course may be repeated for credit. Three to twelve hours of independent study per week. Must be taken on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis. Prerequisites: Open to qualified students directly engaged upon the doctoral dissertation. Directed dissertation research. (F,SP)

298.  Independent Study for Graduate Students in History. (2-12)   Course may be repeated for credit. Independent. Must be taken on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis. Prerequisites: Consent of instructor.

299.  Directed Reading. (1-12)   Course may be repeated for credit. One to twelve hours of independent study per week. Prerequisites: Consent of instructor. Individual conferences to be arranged. Intended to provide directed reading in subject matter not covered in scheduled seminar offerings. (F,SP)

601.  Individual Study for Master's Students. (1-8)   Course may be repeated for credit. Course does not satisfy unit or residence requirements for master's degree. Independent. Must be taken on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis. Prerequisites: For candidates for M.A. degree. Individual study, in consultation with the graduate adviser, to prepare for student's language examinations and the master's examination.

602.  Individual Study for Doctoral Students. (1-8)   Course may be repeated for credit. Course does not satisfy unit or residence requirements for doctoral degree. Independent. Must be taken on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis. Prerequisites: For candidates for doctoral degree. Individual study, in consultation with the graduate adviser, to prepare students for language examinations and the doctoral examination. (F,SP)

Professional Courses

375.  Teaching History at the University. (2)   Two hours of seminar per week. Must be taken on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis. Formerly History 300. This class will introduce graduate students to a variety of techniques and theories used in teaching history at the university level. It will examine readings dealing with a range of classroom situations, opportunities, and challenges, with the goal of enabling future college teachers of history to understand the learning process of their students and to develop and improve their own teaching skills. The course will have two primary goals: (1) to train graduate students to work more effectively as graduate student instructors in history classes at Berkeley; and (2) to introduce students to techniques of designing and running their own classes that they will use when they become independent instructors and, ultimately, professors of history in their own right. (F,SP)

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